At Glasgow, countries had agreed to communicate their longterm low greenhouse gas emission development strategies by COP27. India has set a target of achieving net zero emissions by 2070. The long-term strategies should provide a road map for how that goal is to be achieved.
Underpinning the strategy is an understanding that India has the right to a substantial increase in its energy and material use to meet its development needs. India is only beginning to exploit the positive linkages between energy consumption and economic growth, therefore even as India makes strong efforts to increase its share of energy from non-fossil fuel sources, the transition will be multidecadal and attract high financial and transaction costs. At the same time, India’s contribution to cumulative global emissions is relatively low, about 4%, even though it is population share is about 17%.
At the same time, India understands the need to transition to a low carbon economy, particularly given its vulnerability. However, due to the considerable social and transaction costs, India’s transition will be at a nationally determined pace and scale without compromising development futures. There is another limiting factor, the considerable financial requirement to ensure a low carbon and just transition.
In putting forward a transition plan, India has focused on seven thematic areas — electricity, transport, economic and financial aspects, carbon dioxide removal, industry, urban, and forests. In each thematic area, policy measures that are under implementation, in the process of finalisation and under consideration have been analysed to identify elements of along-term pathway. The attempt is to identify a pathway that is in consonance with India’s development needs.
For instance, the goal in the transport sector is to develop an integrated, efficient, inclusive low carbon system. Current policies and targets will deliver reduction fuel demand through improved fuel efficiencies thereby lowering GHG emissions, adopting cleaner fuels, expanding availability of public transport, electrification across multiple modes.
Sources told ET that India’s longterm strategy document will not be providing any intermediary targets or projections.
The document builds on consultations with stakeholders. A group comprising stakeholders, government representatives, academic expertise and think tanks had been set up for each thematic area. These groups worked on identifying long-term strategies in their area. Inputs from states have also been considered and there have been several months of inter-ministerial consultations.